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BUY TRAMADOL Pills. Visit The Best Pharmacy On The Web.

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From: Cheap Tramadol in USA.
Date: 02 Feb 2007
Time: 06:00:48


Buy Discount Tramadol, THE LOWEST TRAMADOL PRICE ONLINE GUARANTEED. Brand And Generic Tramadol. Fast And Discreet Shipping Worldwide , Free Consultation, Top Pharmacy. Cheap tramadol ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mechanism of action: 1) The mode of action of tramadol has yet to be fully elucidated, but it is believed to work through modulation of the GABAergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. The contribution of non-opioid activity is demonstrated by the analgesic effects of tramadol not being fully antagonised by the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. 2) Tramadol is marketed as a racemic mixture with a weak affinity for the μ-opioid receptor (approximately 1/6000th that of morphine). The (+)-enantiomer is approximately four times more potent than the (-)-enantiomer in terms of μ-opioid receptor affinity and 5-HT reuptake, whereas the (-)-enantiomer is responsible for noradrenaline reuptake effects (Shipton, 2000). These actions appear to produce a synergistic analgesic effect, with (+)-tramadol exhibiting 10-fold higher analgesic activity than (-)-tramadol (Goeringer et al., 1997). 3)The serotonergic modulating properties of tramadol mean that it has the potential to interact with other serotonergic agents. There is an increased risk of serotonin syndrome when tramadol is taken in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. SSRIs), since these agents not only potentiate the effect of 5-HT but also inhibit tramadol's metabolism. 4) It is suggested that tramadol could be effective for alleviating symptoms of depression and anxiety because of its action on GABAergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. However, health professionals generally do not suggest use of the drug for treatment of such disorders. 5) Tramadol may also be used to treat hypertension when other treatments have failed. Learn more ===>> ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Last changed: 02/02/07